Environmental factors, especially intestinal microbes and their toxins, may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (1-7), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) (8, 9), systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) (10), and other chronic disorders (11-14). Moreover, the translocation of live bacteria, their cellular components and toxins into the body is significantly increased by physical and psychological stress, drugs, surgery, and irregularity (15-17).
The immune system plays a key role in protecting the host against hazardous foreign substances. Moreover, a properly functioning immune system is also affected by a variety of exogenous environmental factors (infectious bacteria and viruses), drugs (immunosuppressants and immunostimulants), and intrinsic factors (genetics, stress, gastrointestinal disorders, and immunosenescence associated with aging). In fact, lowered immune function may increase health risks, such as susceptibility to disease causative pathogens. Because immune function can be evaluated by determining the antibody response to foreign antigens, Chondrex, Inc. provides ELISAs to measure IgA and IgG antibody levels to various types of pathogenic and non-pathogenic environmental factors. While these antibody ELISA kits against environmental factors are useful as immune function evaluation tools, several considerations must be addressed before establishing study protocols. Here we would like to share these considerations to help users better choose kits and interpret results. Please contact us for more information at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This series of ELISA kits employ the ChonBlockTM buffer system, which eliminates non-specific hydrophobic and ionic interactions in indirect ELISAs to provide accurate assay results.Learn more about how ChonBlock can improve your assay results!
Human Anti-Bacteria/Toxin IgA Antibody Assay Kits
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Human Anti-E. coli IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6116||377.00|
|Human Anti-E. coli LPS IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6114||377.00|
|Human Anti-Lactobacillus casei IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6122||377.00|
|Human Anti-P. gingivalis IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6120||377.00|
|Human Anti-P. gingivalis LPS IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6118||377.00|
|Human Anti-Peptidoglycan Polysaccharide IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6124||377.00|
|Human Anti-Salmonella IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6126||377.00|
|Human Anti-Yeast Extract IgA Antibody Assay Kit||6128||377.00|
Human Anti-Bacteria/Toxin IgG Antibody Assay Kits
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Human Anti-E. coli IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6115||377.00|
|Human Anti-E. coli LPS IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6113||377.00|
|Human Anti-Lactobacillus casei IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6121||377.00|
|Human Anti-P. gingivalis IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6119||377.00|
|Human Anti-P. gingivalis LPS IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6117||377.00|
|Human Anti-Peptidoglycan Polysaccharide IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6123||377.00|
|Human Anti-Salmonella IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6125||377.00|
|Human Anti-Yeast Extract IgG Antibody Assay Kit||6127||377.00|
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the dominant bacterial toxin in the intestinal tract and plays important roles in the development of the host’s immune system. However, it is also highly likely that LPS plays important pathological roles in patients with chronic autoimmune diseases.
LPS is known to polyclonally active B-cells and consequently activate T-cells, but also triggers and exacerbates inflammatory reactions (5, 6), and may be involved in a pathogenic nature in various chronic diseases such as diabetes (14), systemic lupus erythematosus (10), and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (11). Therefore, in order to understand the possible involvement of these environmental factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, it is important to distinguish how healthy people and patients with diseases respond to these common bacterial toxins.
Pathogenic Environmental Factors and the Possible Contribution to Autoimmune Diseases
Various factors can disrupt the mucosal barrier function (a). As a result, pathogenic intestinal bacterial components (mimic antigens) and their toxins can cross the mucosal barrier into the surrounding tissues and circulation, thus disrupting the immune homeostasis (b).