Ovalbumin (OVA) is a widely used antigen for studying allergic diseases in experimental animals (1-4). To study the contribution of antibodies involved in allergic reactions, investigators studying the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in mice should consider several issues such as mucosal immunity, antibody responses of different isotypes (e.g. IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM) and subtypes (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b) and even the types of adjuvants used for immunization.
Chondrex provides the following ELISA kits to study the mouse antibody responses against OVA, as well as a total IgE ELISA kit which react to both IgEa and IgEb allotypes. Each kit uses a corresponding isotype or subtype monoclonal antibody standard.
Mouse IgE and Anti-OVA Antibody Assay Kits
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgA Antibody Assay Kit||3018||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgE Antibody Assay Kit||3004||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgG Antibody Assay Kit||3011||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgG1 Antibody Assay Kit||3013||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgG2a Antibody Assay Kit||3015||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgG2b Antibody Assay Kit||3016||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgG2c Antibody Assay Kit||3029||383.00|
|Mouse Anti-OVA IgM Antibody Assay Kit||3017||383.00|
|Mouse Serum Anti-OVA IgE Antibody Assay Kit||3010||383.00|
|Mouse Total IgA Antibody Detection Kit||3019||299.00|
|Mouse Total IgE (IgEa and IgEb) Detection Kit||3005||386.00|
The following may be informative for studies on allergic reactions in experimental animals.
Mucosal immunity: The mucosal immune system is the first line of defense system against potential pathogenic and non-pathogenic environmental factors such as bacteria, viruses, and dietary proteins. Importantly, poor mucosal immune function may lead to abnormal absorption of mimic antigens such as food components and bacterial cell walls, which elicit antibodies that may cross-react with autologous components, known as “autoantibodies”. IgG, the dominant antibody isotype in serum, protects the host from pathogens and unwanted antigens that have penetrated into the body. On the other hand, IgA, a known mucosal immunoglobulin, prevents the penetration of pathogens and other unwanted antigenic substances from passing through the mucosal membrane. Therefore, to study mucosal and systemic immune responses to allergens in mouse models, OVA is a valuable and convenient antigen (5).
Allergy: In general, an allergic reaction is mediated by IgE-antigen complexes. More specifically, IgE molecules cross-linked by a polyvalent antigen on the surfaces of mast cells trigger their degranulation which initiates the ensuing allergic cascade. Although the role of IgG antibodies in allergic reactions are not yet clear, two opposing roles are postulated: 1) IgG antibodies which share epitopes with IgE antibodies may competitively bind the epitopes on the allergen and modulate the allergic reaction, or 2) IgG antibodies may enhance the allergic reaction by providing aggregated allergens to IgE on mast cells. In addition, the roles of antibody isotypes and subtypes may differ depending on the allergic reaction, as IgG1 and IgE are regulated by Th2 cells, whereas IgG2a and IgG2b are dependent on Th1 cells. Thus, to investigate the immune responses involved in allergic reactions in OVA-induced allergic mouse models (1-4), anti-OVA IgE, IgG, and IgA antibody ELISA kits are valuable tools.
Adjuvants: The type of adjuvant can elicit specific antibody isotypes. For example, alum adjuvant is widely used to elicit IgE antibodies (7), whereas Cholera toxins are effective at eliciting IgA antibodies (6). Moreover, Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) is widely used for stimulating IgG and IgM antibody production (8).