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Chemokine & Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits

The immune system has developed to respond specifically, quickly, and widely to protect host against foreign antigens (bacteria, viruses, toxins, etc.). Cytokines act as key mediators of immune events including innate immunity, antigen presentation, antibody production, bone marrow differentiation, and cellular recruitment. Chemotactic cytokines (Chemokines), a subfamily of cytokines, have a small molecular weight and are primarily responsible for the recruitment of cells, such as fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and immune cells, to localized areas (chemotaxis) (1-3).

To learn more about the complex biology of cytokines and chemokines, continue reading below.

Chondrex, Inc. provides both Human and Mouse Chemokine & Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits to study the complicated roles of cytokines in mediating physiological and pathological inflammatory reactions, including: arthritis, nephritis, allergies, IBD colitis, cancer, sepsis and COVID-19. The tables below list all of Chondrex, Inc.’s Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Detection ELISA Kits currently available. 

Chondrex, Inc. specializes in inflammatory research, including in-vitro and in-vivo inflammation models. For suggested models and kit pairings that can enable your inflammatory studies click here. 

New Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits are constantly under development, please check back for new kits in the future. Additionally, if there is a cytokine/chemokine target you are interested in that we do not currently offer a kit for, please contact us about custom ELISA kit services at support@chondrex.com.

Human Chemokine & Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Human CCL2 Detection Assay Kit 6821 325.00
Human CCL25 Detection Assay Kit 6823 325.00
Human CCL28 Detection Assay Kit 6824 325.00
Human CCL5 Detection Assay Kit 6822 325.00
Human CXCL1 Detection Assay Kit 6825 325.00
Human CXCL14 Detection Assay Kit 6827 325.00
Human Interferon Gamma (IFN gamma) Detection Assay Kit 6804 325.00
Human Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) Detection Assay Kit 6805 325.00
Human Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Detection Assay Kit 6806 325.00
Human Interleukin 13 (IL-13) Detection Assay Kit 6812 325.00
Human Interleukin 17 (IL-17) Detection Assay Kit 6808 325.00
Human Interleukin 2 (IL-2) Detection Assay Kit 6811 325.00
Human Interleukin 4 (IL-4) Detection Assay Kit 6803 325.00
Human Interleukin 5 (IL-5) Detection Assay Kit 6813 325.00
Human Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Detection Assay Kit 6802 325.00
Human Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) Detection Assay kit 6809 325.00
Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) Detection Assay Kit 6801 325.00
Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Detection Assay Kit 6810 325.00

Mouse Chemokine & Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Mouse CCL17 Detection Assay Kit 6730 325.00
Mouse CCL2 Detection Assay Kit 6721 325.00
Mouse CCL20 Detection Assay Kit 6731 325.00
Mouse CCL22 Detection Assay Kit 6732 325.00
Mouse CCL25 Detection Assay Kit 6723 325.00
Mouse CCL28 Detection Assay Kit 6724 325.00
Mouse CCL5 Detection Assay Kit 6722 325.00
Mouse CXCL1 Detection Assay Kit 6725 325.00
Mouse CXCL13 Detection Assay Kit 6729 325.00
Mouse CXCL14 Detection Assay Kit 6727 325.00
Mouse Interferon Gamma (IFN gamma) Detection Assay Kit 6704 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) Detection Assay Kit 6705 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Detection Assay Kit 6706 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 13 (IL-13) Detection Assay Kit 6712 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 17 (IL-17) Detection Assay Kit 6708 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 2 (IL-2) Detection Assay Kit 6711 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 23 (IL-23) Detection Assay Kit 6714 325.00
Mouse Interleukin 5 (IL-5) Detection Assay Kit 6713 325.00
Mouse Interleukin-4 (IL-4) Detection Assay Kit 6703 325.00
Mouse Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Detection Assay Kit 6702 325.00
Mouse Transforming Growth Factor - beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) Detection Kit 6709 325.00
Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) Detection Assay Kit 6701 325.00
Mouse Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Detection Assay Kit 6710 325.00

Rat Cytokine Detection ELISA Kits

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Rat Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) Detection ELISA Kit 6901 325.00

Cytokines and Their Role in Immunity

Cytokines are small signaling proteins secreted by a wide variety of cell types (primarily immune cells) that regulate immune responses through autocrine signaling (signal to self), paracrine signaling (signal to nearby cells) or endocrine signaling (signal to distant cells through bloodstream). While the signaling pathways these mediators orchestrate are highly complex, cytokines are generally categorized as either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory.  During an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines will potentiate inflammatory pathways, promote activation of cytotoxic T-cells and elicit antibody production by the humoral immune system (1-3). Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are all classified as pro-inflammatory cytokines (4). An example of a pro-inflammatory stimulus that elicits IL-1β up-regulation is a bacterial infection (Figure 1).

Figure 1. E.coli binds to TLR4 on surface of macrophages, initiating an intracellular signaling cascade that leads to expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. Figure 2. Th2 cells release anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. When IL-10 binds to IL-10 receptors on the surface of macrophages, it has downstream effects that downregulate IL-1beta expression and ameliorate inflammatory reactions.

In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines ameliorate inflammatory responses by repressing the expression of specific cytokines and down-regulating expression of cytokine receptors. IL-10, the best studied anti-inflammatory cytokine, is primarily synthesized by CD4+ T-Cells (Th2) cells, monocytes, and B cells (Figure 2). Often, down-regulation of IL-10 is linked to aggressive pro-inflammatory responses and pathological inflammation. Decades of research have shown that IL-10 imbalance can affect the disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, allergies, cancer, and viral infections, including corona viruses (4-6). Managing the balance and dynamics of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial for overcoming immune challenges and maintaining homeostasis. 

Interestingly, several cytokines, such as leukemia inhibitory factor, interferon-alpha, IL-6, and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β), have been categorized as both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory (4,5). This indicates that some cytokines may play different, context-specific roles in healthy immune reactions and inflammatory diseases.

Chemokines and Their Role in Immunity

Chemokines are a sub-class of the cytokine family that have various effects in the immune system. Here we focus on their role as inflammatory mediators through their ability to influence cellular recruitment to sites of injury/damage. Chemokines are classified into four groups based on the location of their first two cysteine residues in N-terminal of the protein structure (7,8):

  1. alpha (α) chemokines (CXC): first two cysteine residues separated by 1 other amino acid residue
  2. beta (β) chemokines (CC): first two cysteine residues are adjacent to each other
  3. gamma (γ) chemokines (C): only contains two cysteine residues, one at N-terminal and one downstream
  4. delta (δ) chemokines (CXXXC or CX3C): first two cysteine residues are separated by three amino acids

Chemokines induce inflammatory cell migration and activation by binding to specific G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptors (GPCR) expressed on different types of leukocytes. α-chemokines specifically attract neutrophils, but do not act on lymphocytes. Conversely, β-chemokines do not act on neutrophils, but selectively attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes. Chemokine signaling attracts and accumulates leukocytes in injured or damaged tissues, initiating both acute and chronic inflammatory responses (Figure 3A). Therefore, elevated chemokine levels are observed in many inflammatory diseases (7-10).

A. Chemotaxis of macrophages to a site of damaged or infected tissue. B. Intercellular signaling mechanism of CXCL8 (IL-8) stimulation of neutrophils.

The best studied chemokine is CXCL8, also known as IL-8. Once CXCL8 is bound to the GPCR located on the leukocytes cell surface, a complex intracellular signaling cascade is initiated. If the affected leukocyte is a neutrophil, CXCL8 promotes infection resolution by inducing phagocytosis and degranulation, which stimulates the release of antimicrobial extracellular fibers known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)  (11,12; Figure 3B). In addition, CXCL8 promotes angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and migration (11-14).

The Effect of Cytokines/Chemokines on T-Cells

The differentiation of naïve T Cells (CD4+ cells) into specialized cell types are dependent on signaling by cytokines (i.e.IL-2, IL-4, IL-21, IL-12, TGF-β, IFN-γ) and several chemokines (i.e. CCL2-5).  Naïve T Cells are differentiated into various T helper (Th) cell subsets through activation by co-stimulatory signaling molecules, including IL-2. The initial subsets of Th cells discovered were the Th1 (inflammation lineage) and Th2 (allergy lineage), however other Th cell subsets have subsequently been described (Th17, Th22, Th9 and Treg cells). The identification of these cell types is based on the unique cytokine profile each of them express (Figure 4). Recent studies have identified the role of chemokines (CCL2-5) in differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells. Chemokines can influence the differentiation of these cells by acting directly on the Th1 and Th2 cell receptors and/or by manipulating the concentration of cytokines released by other cells, such as IL-12 and IL-4, which are necessary for Th1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively (15,16). 

Specific cytokines and chemokines that directly and indirectly influence Th cell differentiation.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-23
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2, CCL5, CCL28 
Suggested inflammatory model(s): Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis, Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis, Collagen-Induced Arthritis 

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) 
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, and IL-23
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CCL25, CCL28
Suggested inflammatory model(s): Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis Model

Nephritis
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5 IL 10, IL-2, IFN γ, IL-17, and IL-6
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2, CCL5
Suggested inflammatory model(s): Cationic BSA (cBSA) ICGN Model, Rat Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis Models

Allergens 
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, VEGF, TGF-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2, CCL5, CCL17, CCL20
Suggested inflammatory model(s): Ovalbumin (OVA)-Induced Asthma, House Dust Mite (HDM)-Induced Asthma

Cancer
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ 
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CCL25, CCL28, CXCL1, CXCL13, CXCL14 

Cytokine Storm Related Diseases
Sepsis

Associated Cytokine(s): IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17
Associated Chemokine(s): CXCL1, CCL2, CCL20, CCL28
Suggested inflammatory model(s): Sepsis/ Endotoxemia by LPS

COVID-19
Associated Cytokine(s): TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17
Associated Chemokine(s): CCL2 
 

References

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  2. Cameron MJ, Kelvin DJ. Cytokines and chemokines--their receptors and their genes: an overview. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 520:8-32. PMID: 12613570
  3. Borish LC, Steinke JW. 2. Cytokines and chemokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Feb;111(2 Suppl): S460-75. PMID: 12592293
  4. Dinarello CA. Proinflammatory cytokines. Chest. 2000 Aug;118(2):503-8. PMID: 10936147
  5. Opal SM, DePalo VA. Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest. 2000 Apr;117(4):1162-72. PMID: 10767254.
  6. Rojas JM, Avia M, Martín V, Sevilla N. IL-10: A Multifunctional Cytokine in Viral Infections. J Immunol Res. 2017. PMID: 28316998
  7. Luster AD. Chemokines--chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 12;338(7):436-45. PMID: 9459648
  8. White GE, Iqbal AJ, Greaves DR, CC chemokine receptors and chronic inflammation--therapeutic opportunities and pharmacological challenges. Pharmacological Reviews. 65, 47–89 (2013).
  9. Proost P, Wuyts A, van Damme J. The role of chemokines in inflammation. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1996;26(4):211-23. PMID: 9007610
  10. Martínez Martínez CM, Hernández Pando R. [Chemokines, a new family of cytokines in inflammatory cell recruitment]. Rev Invest Clin. 1999 Jul-Aug;51(4):255-68. PMID: 10546507
  11. Brinkmann V, Reichard U, Goosmann C, Fauler B, Uhlemann Y, Weiss DS, Weinrauch Y, Zychlinsky A. Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria. Science. 2004 Mar 5;303(5663):1532-5. PMID: 15001782
  12. David JM, Dominguez C, Hamilton DH, Palena C. The IL-8/IL-8R Axis: A Double Agent in Tumor Immune Resistance. Vaccines (Basel). 2016 Jun 24;4(3):22. PMID: 27348007
  13. Li A, Dubey S, Varney ML, Dave BJ, Singh RK. IL-8 directly enhanced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinases production and regulated angiogenesis. J Immunol. 2003 Mar 15;170(6):3369-76. PMID: 12626597
  14. Raphael I, Nalawade S, Eagar TN, Forsthuber TG. T cell subsets and their signature cytokines in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Cytokine. 2015 Jul;74(1):5-17. PMID: 25458968
  15. Zhu J, Yamane H, Paul WE. Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations (*). Annu Rev Immunol. 2010; 28:445-89. PMID: 20192806
  16. Ward SG, Westwick J. Chemokines: understanding their role in T-lymphocyte biology. Biochem J. 1998 Aug 1;333 (Pt 3):457-70. PMID: 9677302
  17. Luther SA, Cyster JG. Chemokines as regulators of T cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2001 Feb;2(2):102-7. PMID: 11175801