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Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Disease Development
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are primarily responsible for the physiological and pathological turnover of tissues throughout the body. While normally expressed in low levels in tissues of healthy adults, MMPs are up-regulated at sites of tissues damage to facilitate tissue repair. Additionally, several disease states, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, also have increased MMP activity. This blog discusses the various MMPs in the progression of those diseases. Read More
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs): Multi-Faceted Family of Endopeptidases
MMPs are a family of endopeptidases with a wide array of substrates, ranging from collagen and other ECM constituents to cytokines/chemokines, and even other MMPs. As such, MMPs have a complex biological role involving several different signaling pathways. Read here to learn more about basic MMP structure and the role of MMPs in physiological processes. Read More
Type I & Type II Collagen: Structure Influences Staining Patterns
Fibrillar collagens have a unique structure that influence collagen sample preparation and the immunostaining patterns of collagen samples. As such, understanding collagen structure is vital for interpreting SDS-gel and Western Blot results. Here, Chondrex, Inc. scientists share important information about collagens structure and its implications for collagen immunostaining. Read More
Ovalbumin Epitopes in Cell-Mediated Immunity, Humoral Immunity, and Anti-OVA Monoclonal Antibodies
Ovalbumin has long been used as an antigen in pre-clinical allergic disease research. To better understand how ovalbumin immunizations influence immune responses, extensive research has been done to identify T-cell and B-cell epitopes of Ovalbumin. This blog discusses the significance of various OVA epitopes for cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Read More
Ovalbumin: Ideal Model Antigen for Immunology Research
Ovalbumin (OVA), the primary egg white allergen in infants, was used extensively in early immunology studies investigating antibody-antigen interactions. This historical usage, along with the commercial availability of purified OVA and Anti-OVA Antibody Detection Kits, has OVA a convenient and cost effective model antigen for a variety of research topics: IgE-mediated allergies, vaccines, and oncology. Read this blog to learn more! Read More
COVID-19 Research Tools
While our main focus are proteins, antibodies, and assay kits for pre-clinical autoimmune diseases research, Chondrex, Inc. is also committed to helping researchers around the world fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Here is a list of products we've identified as important for COVID-19 research, with a list of references that provides more information on their relevance to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More
Understanding Chondrex Inc.'s
Chondrex, Inc. provides a wide selection or different types and species of collagen that are carefully prepared with specific uses in mind. Each grade of collagen contains specific qualities that make it suitable for unique applications: cell culture, tissue engineering, ELISAs, and in vivo uses. This article discusses these differences to help you decide which of our purified collagen proteins are right for you. Read More
Andrographolide: Potential Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis & Other Inflammatory Diseases
Andrographolide, a component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, is a bioactive compound with many biological effects ranging from anti-inflammatory to anti-tumor activities. In a recent study, an andrographolide derivative conjugated with lipoic acid, termed AL-1, was evaluated for its ability to treat a the DSS-Induced Colitis Model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Not only could AL-1 reduce the disease severity, it helped to resolve a key feature that drives the intestinal inflammation characteristic of the DSS-colitis model. This research has promising results for new therapeutics to treat human UC. Read More
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: not just for catching pathogens.
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are exactly as they sound: a web-like structure released from activated neutrophils that can trap and kill pathogens. While the primary function appears to be prolonging the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils, even after cell death, NETs have become a target of research for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and SLE, as well as cancer. Research studying the role of NETs in a variety of disease states could deepen our understanding of inflammatory diseases while providing new avenues for therapeutic development. Read More
Gastrointestinal Microbiota & Reproducibility of Animal Disease Models
Differences in gastrointestinal microbiota contribute to phenotypic variance in experimental disease models, lowering the reproducibility of many preclinical animal model studies. As experts in conducting preclinical animal model experiments, Chondrex, Inc. can help you identify sources of microbial variation in your experiments, as well as make a few recommendations to increase the reproducibility of your experiments. Continue reading to find out how to limit gastrointestinal microbiota variance in your experimental disease model experiments! Read More
Immune Complexes Drive Pre-Inflammatory Pain in Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis Model
Pain-like behavior has been observed before the onset of inflammation in the Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis model. This new pain mechanism does not utilize traditional inflammatory pain pathways. Instead, the pain-like behavior seems to be induced by direct neuron activation by type II collagen-autoantibody immune complexes. More research is needed to determine how this finding translates to human disease, but it could provide a avenue of treatments for chronic pain in autoimmune disease patients. Read More
Spontaneous Arthritis Development in LPS-Induced Periodontitis Model
For the first time, it has been reported that a LPS-induced periodontitis model led to the spontaneous development of arthritis in CD-1 mice. These findings further strengthen the link between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis, while highlighting the potential role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in perpetuating inflammatory responses. Moving forward, it will be vital to consider the immune interactions between the host and the microbiome when researching systemic inflammatory diseases so we may gain a better understanding of seemingly idiopathic autoimmune diseases. Read More
Anti-Bacteria Antibody ELISAs as Analytical Tool in Autoimmune Disease Research
A recent paper sought to evaluate the usefulness of several bacteriological and serological analytical methods in evaluating the triggering bacteria of spondyloarthritis. Serological evaluation by assaying for antibodies against specific bacteria provides a glimpse of a patient's previous exposure to potential pathogenic bacteria, while also providing information on the patients immune response to that bacteria. Anti-Bacteria Antibody Assays kits are therefore a very useful tool for researchers and clinicians alike to study the complex mechanisms underlying spondyloarthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Read More
Optical Molecular Imaging Inflammation in Mouse CAIA Model
There is currently a need for a cost-effective imaging technique to aid in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, a crucial factor in improving patient outcomes. Optical molecular imaging (OMI) is currently used to image tumors for diagnostic and surgical applications, but can be adapted for imaging cellular and sub-cellular processes that are a part of other diseases. This article reviews how researchers at the University of Michigan used OMI to image inflammation in the mouse CAIA model, with promising implications for clinical usage. Read More
Troubleshooting the Collagen-Induced Arthritis Model
While the Collagen-Induced Arthritis model is the most popular rheumatoid arthritis model, there are many sources of variation that can alter the development of the model. Here is a list of factors to consider when planning a CIA experiment in order to reduce sources of variation and increase the reproducibility of your model. Read More
Microbiota: Linking Genetics and Inflammatory Disease
Genetic factors like NOD2, HLA and TLR genes affect intestinal microbiota composition. Interestingly, variants of these factors are also linked with inflammatory diseases, like IBD and RA. Microbiota research may help us understand how genetic and environmental factors affect inflammatory diseases. Read More
Krüppel-Like Factor 4: New Target for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
Kruppel-Like Factor 4 (KLF4) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients whose symptoms cannot be managed with current treatments. This blog highlights how the modulatory role of KLF4 in RA was determined using well-characterized disease models: Collage-Induced Arthritis and Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis. Read More
Arthritis Models: Using CIA and CAIA to Study RA GWAS Risk Loci
Genome Wide Association Studies (GWASs) have identified numerous genes as potential therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. However, determining the roles of these genetic factors in RA pathogenesis is virtually impossible. Therefore, the mouse Collagen-Induced Arthritis and Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis models are useful tools to parse a genetics mechanisms for autoimmune arthritis. Read More
Intestinal Bacteria Modulate Inflammatory Arthritis
Review of paper published by W.K. Jubair et al. which analyzes how intestinal microbiota changes during the development Collagen-Induced Arthritis in mice. The study continues by using broad-spectrum antibiotics to observe the time-dependent effects that microbiota exert on autoimmunity. Read More
Different Bacterial Pathogens May Affect Serological Disease Markers in RRP and non-RRP Rheumatoid Arthritis
Summary of Terato et al. (2018) which studied correlations between antibody responses to common bacterial pathogens (E. coli LPS, P. gingivalis LPS, and peptioglycan-polysaccharide) and rheumatoid arthritis disease markers. The results suggest that different bacterial pathogens may be involved in evoking serological disease markers in RRP and non-RRP rheumatoid arthritis, and may contribute to the different disease outcomes in these patient groups. This paper lays the groundwork for studying rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases as perturbations of gastrointestinal bacterial populations rather than a malfunctioning immune response. Read More
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