Cancer arises when the host fails to eliminate transformed cells. Typically, surgery is the primary treatment method for most isolated solid cancers and may work for palliation and prolongation of survival. In addition, chemotherapy and radiation treatments are still commonly used to treat many types of cancers. Targeted therapy has emerged as the new generation of cancer drugs designed to interfere with specific target molecules (proteins) that are believed to have a critical role in tumor growth or progression (1). Furthermore, these new therapeutics and drug designs have been used for improving current drug therapies.
1) Exosome for drug delivery system
Exosomes are small vesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) that contain membrane-bound receptors, and carry proteins and miRNAs. Exosomes can be distinguished by size and specific surface markers including CD81, CD63, and CD9. Cancer patients have higher levels of exosomes in body fluids, indicating the roles that exosomes play in cancer progression and tumorigenesis. Unlike synthetic nanoparticles, exosomes are more biocompatible and biodegradable, and thus have low toxicity and immunogenicity which makes them ideal for drug loading and delivery in chemotherapy or immunotherapy (2, 3).
2) Immune-checkpoint therapy
Tumors develop multiple resistance mechanisms, including local immune suppression(4). Programmed death 1 protein (PD-1) is a key immune checkpoint receptor expressed by activated T-cells, and it mediates immunosuppression by binding to PD-1 ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) which are expressed by tumor cells. Inhibition of the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands can enhance T-cell responses, leading to antitumor activity(5).
Chondrex,Inc provides monoclonal antibodies against human CD9 and CD63 for exosome research and mouse PD-1 and PD-L1 for cancer research.
Antibodies for Cancer Research
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD63 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1B12E10||7119||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD63 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1B9C2||7118||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD9 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1H1H7||7114||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Mouse PD-1 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 2H2H11||7123||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Mouse PD-L1 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 3A9F12||7122||175.00|
1. Targeted cancer therapy, 1–4 (2004).
2. J. Wang, Y. Zheng, M. Zhao, Exosome-Based Cancer Therapy: Implication for Targeting Cancer Stem Cells. Front. Pharmacol. 7, 4360–11 (2017).
3. Y. Fujita, Y. Yoshioka, T. Ochiya, Extracellular vesicle transfer of cancer pathogenic components. Cancer Sci. 107, 385–390 (2016).
4. C. Wang et al., In Vitro Characterization of the Anti-PD-1 Antibody Nivolumab, BMS-936558, and In Vivo Toxicology in Non-Human Primates. Cancer Immunology Research. 2, 846–856 (2014).
5. New England Journal, 1–12 (2012).