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Mouse - Anti-Bacterial Antibody Assays

 

Environmental factors, especially intestinal microbiota and their toxins, may play roles in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthtritis (RA) (1-7), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) (8, 9), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (10) and other chronic disorders (11-13).  In fact, germ-free mice fail to develop ankylosing enthesopathy, a mouse spontaneous joint disease with many parallels to human ankylosing spondylitis (15).  Moreover, increased intestinal mucosal permeability due to stress, surgery and minor gastrointestinal disorders, such as irregularity, may contribute to excess translocation of gut bacteria into the body (16-18).  These events suggest the pathological importance of intestinal bacteria with regard to autoimmune disorders.

Among the many toxins in the environment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by intestinal gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E.coli), is involved in various types of chronic autoimmune disorders. In fact, oral LPS administration induces mild arthritis in mice with chronically activated immune systems (3).  In addition, LPS plays a synergistic pathological role with sub-arthritogenic levels of autoantibodies, and triggers and exacerbates severe arthritis in the mouse collagen antibody-induced arthritis model (19).

In order to elucidate the host immune response to potential environmental pathogens, Chondrex provides mouse anti-E.coli (O111:B4) and anti-LPS (111:B4) IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3 and IgM antibody ELISA kits.  These ELISA kits are designed to assay anti-E.coli or anti-LPS antibodies in mouse sera, and contain enough material to run two partial assays on two separate occasions (see assay protocols).

Mouse - Anti-E. coli Antibody Assays

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Mouse Anti-E. Coli IgG Antibody Assay Kit 6206 347.00
Mouse Anti-E. coli IgG1 Antibody Assay Kit 6207 347.00
Mouse Anti-E. coli IgG2a Antibody Assay Kit 6210 347.00
Mouse Anti-E. coli IgG2b Antibody Assay Kit 6211 347.00
Mouse Anti-E. coli IgG3 Antibody Assay Kit 6212 347.00
Mouse Anti-E. coli IgM Antibody Assay Kit 6209 347.00

Mouse - Anti-LPS Antibody Assays

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Mouse Anti-LPS IgG Antibody Assay Kit 6106 347.00
Mouse Anti-LPS IgG1 Antibody Assay Kit 6107 347.00
Mouse Anti-LPS IgG2a Antibody Assay Kit 6110 347.00
Mouse Anti-LPS IgG2b Antibody Assay Kit 6111 347.00
Mouse Anti-LPS IgG3 Antibody Assay Kit 6112 347.00

Mouse - Anti-SEA Antibody Assays

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Mouse Anti SEA IgG Antibody Assay Kit 6218 347.00
Mouse Anti SEA IgG1 Antibody Assay Kit 6219 347.00
Mouse Anti SEA IgG2a Antibody Assay Kit 6220 347.00
Mouse Anti SEA IgG2b Antibody Assay Kit 6221 347.00

Mouse - Anti-SEB Antibody Assays

Product Catalog # Price (USD)
Mouse Anti-SEB IgG Antibody Assay Kit 6214 347.00
Mouse Anti-SEB IgG1 Antibody Assay Kit 6215 347.00
Mouse Anti-SEB IgG2a Antibody Assay Kit 6216 347.00
Mouse Anti-SEB IgG2b Antibody Assay Kit 6217 347.00


Pathogenic Environmental Factors and the Possible Contribution to Autoimmune Diseases
Various factors can disrupt the mucosal barrier function (a).  As a result, pathogenic intestinal 
bacterial components (mimic antigens) and their toxins can cross the mucosal barrier into 
the surrounding tissues and circulation, thus disrupting the immune homeostasis (b).
 

REFERENCES

1.  Aoki S. et al. Role of enteric bacteria in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: evidence for antibodies to enterobacterial common antigens in rheumatoid sera and synovial fluids. Ann Rheum Dis 55:363-9 (1996)

2. Van der Heijden IM. et al. Presence of bacterial DNA and bacterial peptidoglycans in joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other arthritides. Arthritis Rheum 43:593-8 (2000).

3. Terato K, Y.X., Miyahara H, Cremer MA, Griffiths MM., Induction of chronic autoimmune arthritis in DBA/1  mice by oral administration of type II collagen and E.coli LPS. Br J Rheum, 1996. 35: 828-838.

4. Terato K, H.D., Griffiths MM, Hasty DL, Ye XJ, Cremer MA, Seyer JM., Collagen-induced arthritis in mice: synergistic effect of E.coli lipopolysaccharide bypasses epitope specificity in the induction of arthritis with monoclonal antibodies to type II collagen. Autoimmunity, 1995. 22: 137-147.

5.   Peltonen R, N.M., Helve T, Hänninen O, Toivanen P, Eerola E., Faecal microbial flora and disease activity
      in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet. Br J Rheumatol, 1997. 36: 64-8.

6.   Toivanen, P., Normal intestinal microbiota in the aetiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum
       Dis, 2003. 62: 807-11.

7.   Vaahtovuo J, M.E., Korkeamäki M, Luukkainen R, Toivanen P., Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid
      arthritis. J Rheumatol, 2008. 35: 1500-5.

8.   Murakami M, N.K., Yamazaki K, Muraguchi T, Serikawa T, Honjo T., Effects of breeding environments on
      generation and activation of autoreactive B-1 cells in anti-red blood cell autoantibody transgenic mice. J
      Exp Med, 1997. 185: 791-4.

9.   Edwards, C., Commensal Gut Bacteria and the Etiopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Rheum,
      2008. 35: 1477-78.

10. Dayna Shi, J.D.a.G.D., Inflammatory bowel disease requires the interplay between innate and adaptive
       immune signals.
Cell Research, 2006. 16: 70–74.

11. Nell S, S.S., Josenhans C, The impact of the microbiota on the pathogenesis of IBD: lessons from
       mouse infection models. .
Nat Rev Microbiol, 2010. 8: 564-77.

12. Cavallo T, G.N., Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces long-lasting IgA deficiency concurrently with
       features of polyclonal B cell activation in normal and in lupus-prone mice.
Clin Exp Immunol, 1991. 84:
       134–138.

13. Penhale WJ, Y.P., The influence of the normal microbial flora on the susceptibility of rats to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Clin Exp Immunol, 1988. 72: 288-92.

14. Nymark M, P.P., Tuomainen AM, Forsblom C, Groop PH, Lehto M; FinnDiane Study Group., Serum
       lipopolysaccharide activity is associated with the progression of kidney disease in finnish patients with
       type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes Care, 2009. 32: 1689-93.

15. Anderlik P, S.I., Bános Z, Barna Z., Bacterial translocation after cold stress in young and old mice. Acta
      Microbiol Hung, 1990. 37: 289-94.

16. Velin AK, E.A., Braaf Y, Wallon C, Söderholm JD., Increased antigen and bacterial uptake in follicle
       associated epithelium induced by chronic psychological stress in rats.
Gut, 2004. 53: 494-500.

17. Khalif IL, Q.E., Konovitch EA, Maximova ID., Alterations in the colonic flora and intestinal permeability and evidence of immune activation in chronic constipation. Dig Liver Dis, 2005. 37: 838-49.