Exosomes are microvesicles (30-100 nm) produced by most cell types. They carry a wide variety of cargo including nucleic acids and proteins, which stimulate receiving cells and produce a variety of downstream effects.
Analyzing exosome contents and their surface proteins or using exosomes as carriers of therapeutic agents requires easy and reliable methods of isolation and quantification. In addition, intactness of isolated exosomes is important to analyze their functions.
Chondrex, Inc. has developed an exosome isolation kit and a line of analysis reagents. Our column-based isolation system can be used to purify intact exosomes from both serum and cell-conditioned medium. Companion ELISA kits can be used to quantify exosome contents in column fractions as well as exosome levels in samples such as culture mediam and sera. Chondrex, Inc. also offers several monoclonal antibodies against common exosome markers: CD9, CD63, and CD81, for immunostaining, ELISA, or flow cytometry.
Exosome ELISA Kits
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Human CD9 Expressed Exosome Detection Assay Kit||6036||347.00|
Exosome Marker Antibodies
|Product||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD63 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1B12E10||7119||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD63 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1B9C2||7118||175.00|
|Mouse Anti-Human CD9 IgG Monoclonal Antibody, Clone 1H1H7||7114||175.00|
In recent years, exosomes have been found to play important roles in intercellular communication, including immune-modulation and coordination of cellular motility. These roles have important implications for a wide variety of diseases. For example, cancer stem cells (CSCs) arise from epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and may contribute to recurrence of malignancy. The exosomes secreted from breast CSCs and chemoresistant cells contain miRNA-155. When the recipient cells receive miRNA-155-containing exosomes, the cells obtain chemoresistance (1). Some exosomes express specific molecules on their membrane surfaces that can modulate immune reaction. Exosomes isolated from mature dendritic cells (DCs) that express ICAM-1 on their surface, can induce T-cell proliferation directly. Interestingly, exosomes from mature DCs are also able to confer antigen presentation ability to B-cells, leading to activation of naïve T-cells (2). Dendritic cells (DCs) that express IL-4 or Fas ligands were reported to reduce development of murine arthritis (3-4). Interestingly, exosomes derived from immature DCs treated with immunomodulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 suppress the onset and reduce severity of murine collagen-induced arthritis (5-6).
Thus, exosomes can modulate immune function, resulting in being a possible therapeutic tool for cancer, autoimmunity, and other diseases.
Chondrex, Inc. not only provides reagents for exosome research, but also reagents to induce autoimmune disease models such as arthritis, ELISA kits to assay cytokines and chemokines, and antibodies to detect cancer markers.
1. J. Santos, N. Lima, L. Sarian, A. Matheu, M. Ribeirio, et al. Exoxome-mediated breast cancer chemosresistance via miR-155 transfer. Sci Rep. 8, 829 (2018)
2. E. Segura, C. Nicco, B. Lombard, P. Véron, G. Raposo, et al., ICAM-1 on exosomes from mature dendritic cells is critical for efficient naive T-cell priming. Blood 106, 216-23 (2005).
3. S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Evans, S. Ghivizzani, T. Oligino, P. Robbins, et al., Effective treatment of established murine collagen-induced arthritis by systemic administration of dendritic cells genetically modified to express IL-4. J Immunol 166, 3499-505 (2001).
4. S. Kim, N. Bianco, R. Menon, E. Lechman, W. Shufesky, et al., Exosomes derived from genetically modified DC expressing FasL are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive. Mol Ther 13, 289-300 (2006).
5. S. Kim, E. Lechman, N. Bianco, R. Menon, A. Keravala, et al., Exosomes derived from IL-10-treated dendritic cells can suppress inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol 174, 6440-8 (2005).
6. N. Bianco, S. Kim, A. Morelli, P. Robbins, Modulation of the immune response using dendritic cell-derived exosomes. Methods Mol Biol 380, 443-55 (2007).