A recent publication in the Food and Function Journal from L.Li et al. demonstrates how the oral administration of Lactobacillus casei affects HDM induced immune responses in mice using Chondrex, Inc.’s Mouse anti-HDM Antibody Assay Kits as follows (1).
Activated adaptive T helper 2 (Th2) cells secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-9. IL-5 activates eosinophils that secrete oxygen free radicals and toxic granules leading to chronic airway inflammation. In B-cells, IL-4 induces production of anti-allergen immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which bind to the IgE receptors located on mast cells. The cross-linking of allergen and bound IgE antibodies activates the mast cell and promotes the secretion of biologically active mediators, such as histamine, leading to airway inflammation.
Probiotics (mainly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) can enhance the intestinal barrier function by increasing the host’s antioxidant status, modulating gut microbial composition, and enhancing microbial metabolite levels such as short 61 chain fatty acids. Probiotic treatments have been considered beneficial for intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
This study evaluated the individual prophylactic effects of five unique Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) strains on house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma with a specific focus on inflammation, immune response, and gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Anti-HDM IgG1 and IgE levels responsible for the Th2 reaction, and IgG2b levels responsible for the Th1 reaction were determined with anti-HDM antibody assay kits (Chondrex, Inc). In the HDM-induced asthma model, female BALB/c mice were given intranasal challenges of 25 μg purified Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract dissolved in 10 μL of saline for 5 days/week over 5 consecutive weeks (model group); control groups received 10 μL sterile saline. Mice in each test group were administered 250 μL of a single L. casei strain, designated L. casei1 (M2-07-F01-L4-2-1), L. casei2 (M2-06-F01-L4-2-3), L. casei3 (CCFM1073), L. casei4 (RS8-5), or L. casei5 (FGDLZ41) accordingly, every day, starting one week before the first HDM sensitization and continuing over the whole process.
Each L. casei strain differentially suppressed serum asthma-related immunoglobulins (Igs). L. casei3 and L. casei5 significantly decreased both total IgE and HDM-specific IgG1 antibody levels. L. casei1 significantly decreased the total IgE levels, while L. casei4 significantly decreased HDM-specific IgG1 antibody levels. L. casei2 did not seem to affect any antibody levels. HDM-specific IgE antibodies were undetectable in all groups. A certain HDM-specific IgG1/ IgG2a ratio is required to achieve an appropriate Th2/Th1 immune balance; L. casei1, L. casei3, and L. casei5 were all able to partially correct the HDM-affected specific IgG1/ IgG2a antibody ratios. These results indicate that different strains of L. casei can exert differential prophylactic effects on asthma through various immunoregulatory mechanisms.
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Chondrex Inc. offers a line of Mouse Anti-House Dust Mite (HDM) Antibody Assay Kits and Mouse Anti-Der p1 Antibody Assay Kits. To study the allergen-specific immune response in mouse HDM induced asthma models of human asthma, these kits are ideal for assaying serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgE, and IgM antibodies against HDM extracts and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Peptidase 1 (Der p1), one of the main HDM allergens. Chondrex Inc.'s asthma model page has recommended study protocols, evaluation strategies, and publications for asthma models.