Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, is the major structural component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. LPS plays pathological roles in inflammatory diseases such as: bacterial sepsis, inflammatory bowel disorders, lung disease, periodontal disease, and asthma (1-4).
Host recognition of LPS is predominantly mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Critical steps in the stimulation of TLR4 involves LPS recognition and binding to lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), which transfers LPS to CD14 followed by delivery of monomeric LPS to the myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2)/ TLR4 membrane receptor complex on the surfaces of cells such as monocytes or intestinal epithelial cells (7-9). These binding events initiate the inflammatory signaling cascade that includes the activation of NF-kappa B and the subsequent production of proinflammatory cytokines.
LPS and Biotinylated LPS from Escherichia coli (O111:B4)
|Product||Quantity||Catalog #||Price (USD)|
|Biotinylated Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli O111:B4||0.1 mg, lyophilized||6108||45.00|
|Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli 0111:B4||0.5 mg/ml x 5 ml||9028||50.00|
To facilitate studies on LPS–host interactions, a biotinylated LPS and a streptavidin conjugated probe (an enzyme or a fluorochrome) can be used for identifying LPS ligands in many applications such as: enzyme immunoassay, western blot, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy (5). In addition, LPS-ligand interactions can be evaluated in a pull-down assay as demonstrated with HMGB1: a late stage mediator of endotoxin shock (6). Chondrex also provides purified bovine HMGB1 for use as a positive control for these LPS binding assays (catalog # 9050).